Moxacin : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage / Pillintrip
Dưới đây là danh sách Moxacin đầy đủ nhất được tổng hợp bởi chúng tôi
The benefit of moxifloxacin treatment especially in infections with a low degree of severity should be balanced with the information contained in the warnings and precautions section.
Prolongation of QTc interval and potentially QTc-prolongation-related clinical conditions
Moxifloxacin has been shown to prolong the QTc interval on the electrocardiogram in some patients.5.
Treatment with moxifloxacin should be stopped if signs or symptoms that may be associated with cardiac arrhythmia occur during treatment, with or without ECG findings.
Moxifloxacin should be used with caution in patients with any condition pre-disposing to cardiac arrhythmias (e.g. acute myocardial ischaemia) because they may have an increased risk of developing ventricular arrhythmias (incl. torsade de pointes) and cardiac arrest.5.
Moxifloxacin should be used with caution in patients who are taking medications that can reduce potassium levels.5.
Moxifloxacin should be used with caution in patients who are taking medications associated with clinically significant bradycardia.
Female patients and elderly patients may be more sensitive to the effects of QTc-prolonging medications such as moxifloxacin and therefore special caution is required.
Hypersensitivity and allergic reactions have been reported for fluoroquinolones including moxifloxacin after first administration. Anaphylactic reactions can progress to a life-threatening shock, even after the first administration. In cases of clinical manifestations of severe hypersensitivity reactions moxifloxacin should be discontinued and suitable treatment (e.g. treatment for shock) initiated.
Severe liver disorders
Cases of fulminant hepatitis potentially leading to liver failure (including fatal cases) have been reported with moxifloxacin. Patients should be advised to contact their doctor prior to continuing treatment if signs and symptoms of fulminant hepatic disease develop such as rapidly developing asthenia associated with jaundice, dark urine, bleeding tendency or hepatic encephalopathy.
Liver function tests/investigations should be performed in cases where indications of liver dysfunction occur.
Serious bullous skin reactions
Cases of bullous skin reactions like Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported with moxifloxacin. Patients should be advised to contact their doctor immediately prior to continuing treatment if skin and/or mucosal reactions occur.
Patients predisposed to seizures
Quinolones are known to trigger seizures. Use should be with caution in patients with CNS disorders or in the presence of other risk factors which may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold. In case of seizures, treatment with moxifloxacin should be discontinued and appropriate measures instituted.
Cases of sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy resulting in paraesthesias, hypoaesthesias, dysaesthesias, or weakness have been reported in patients receiving quinolones including moxifloxacin. Patients under treatment with moxifloxacin should be advised to inform their doctor prior to continuing treatment if symptoms of neuropathy such as pain, burning, tingling, numbness, or weakness develop in order to prevent the development of an irreversible condition.
Psychiatric reactions may occur even after the first administration of quinolones, including moxifloxacin. In very rare cases depression or psychotic reactions have progressed to suicidal thoughts and self-injurious behaviour such as suicide attempts. In the event that the patient develops these reactions, moxifloxacin should be discontinued and appropriate measures instituted. Caution is recommended if moxifloxacin is to be used in psychotic patients or in patients with history of psychiatric disease.
Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea incl. colitis
Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and antibiotic-associated colitis (AAC), including pseudomembranous colitis and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea, has been reported in association with the use of broad spectrum antibiotics including moxifloxacin and may range in severity from mild diarrhoea to fatal colitis. Therefore it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who develop serious diarrhoea during or after the use of moxifloxacin. If AAD or AAC is suspected or confirmed, ongoing treatment with antibacterial agents, including moxifloxacin, should be discontinued and adequate therapeutic measures should be initiated immediately. Furthermore, appropriate infection control measures should be undertaken to reduce the risk of transmission. Drugs inhibiting peristalsis are contraindicated in patients who develop serious diarrhoea.
Patients with myasthenia gravis
Moxifloxacin should be used with caution in patients with myasthenia gravis because the symptoms can be exacerbated.
Tendon inflammation, tendon rupture
Tendon inflammation and rupture (especially Achilles tendon), sometimes bilateral, may occur with quinolone therapy including moxifloxacin, even within 48 hours of starting treatment and have been reported up to several months after discontinuation of therapy. The risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture is increased in elderly patients and in those treated concurrently with corticosteroids. At the first sign of pain or inflammation, patients should discontinue treatment with moxifloxacin, rest the affected limb(s) and consult their doctor immediately in order to initiate appropriate treatment (e.g. immobilisation) for the affected tendon.
Patients with renal impairment
Elderly patients with renal disorders should use moxifloxacin with caution if they are unable to maintain adequate fluid intake, because dehydration may increase the risk of renal failure.
If vision becomes impaired or any effects on the eyes are experienced, an eye specialist should be consulted immediately.
As with all fluoroquinolones, disturbances in blood glucose, including both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia have been reported with moxifloxacin. In moxifloxacin-treated patients, dysglycemia occurred predominantly in elderly diabetic patients receiving concomitant treatment with an oral hypoglycemic agent (e.g. sulfonylurea) or with insulin. In diabetic patients, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
Prevention of photosensitivity reactions
Quinolones have been shown to cause photosensitivity reactions in patients. However, studies have shown that moxifloxacin has a lower risk to induce photosensitivity. Nevertheless patients should be advised to avoid exposure to either UV irradiation or extensive and/or strong sunlight during treatment with moxifloxacin.
Patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
Patients with a family history of or actual glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency are prone to haemolytic reactions when treated with quinolones. Therefore, moxifloxacin should be used with caution in these patients.
Peri-arterial tissue inflammation
Moxifloxacin solution for infusion is for intravenous administration only. Intra-arterial administration should be avoided since preclinical studies demonstrated peri-arterial tissue inflammation following infusion by this route.
Patients with special cSSSI
Clinical efficacy of moxifloxacin in the treatment of severe burn infections, fasciitis and diabetic foot infections with osteomyelitis has not been established.
Patients on sodium diet
This medicinal product contains 787 mg (approximately 34 mmol) sodium per dose. To be taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium diet.
Interference with biological tests
Moxifloxacin therapy may interfere with the Mycobacterium spp. culture test by suppression of mycobacterial growth causing false negative results in samples taken from patients currently receiving moxifloxacin.
Patients with MRSA infections
Moxifloxacin is not recommended for the treatment of MRSA infections. In case of a suspected or confirmed infection due to MRSA, treatment with an appropriate antibacterial agent should be started.
Due to adverse effects on the cartilage in juvenile animals the use of moxifloxacin in children and adolescents < 18 years is contraindicated.